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Fabric Inspection: Procedure and Calculations

Fabric Inspection Procedure and Calculations
S.M. Bappy Rana
Dept. of Textile Engineering
Bangladesh University of Business & Technology
Cell: +8801781630519




Inspection:
Inspection can be defined as the visual examination or review of raw materials (such as fabric, buttons, zippers, sewing threads, trims etc), partially finished components of the garments and completely finished garments in relation to some standards, specifications or requirement as well as measuring the garments to check if they meet the required measurements.

Objectives:
The main objectives of inspection is the-
  1. Detection of Defects
  2. Correcting of defect or defective garments as early as possible in the manufacturing process so that time and money are not wasted later. 
Inspection loop
Inspection loop
Fabric Inspection Method:
Fabric is inspected to determine its acceptability from a quality view point.

There are various fabric inspection system such as-
  • 4- point system
  • 10- point system
  • 2.5- point system etc.
4- Point System:
The 4- point system is widely used for fabric inspection, in the united states it is known as AAMA point grading system (AAMA- American Apparel manufacturers association).

Procedure of Four Point System:
  1. Fabric inspection is usually done on fabric inspection machineries.
  2. These machineries are designed so that rolls of fabric can be mounted behind the inspection table under adequate light and re-rolled as they leave the table.
  3. Inspection machineries are either power driver or the inspector pulls the fabric over the inspection table.
  4. The defects are located, marked and recorded on an inspection form.
  5. Some machinery is equipped to measure the length of each roll of fabric (meter/yard).
Fabric defects point values based on the following:

Length of defect in Fabric
Points allotted
Up to 3 inch
1
Over 3 inch up to 6 inch
2
Over 6 inch up to 9 inch
3
Over 9 inch
4
Holes and Opening
1 or less
2
Over 1 inch
4

Calculations and Result:
Total defect points per 100 yard square are calculated.

If fabric rolls contains less than 40 points per 100 yard square are considered “first” quality and as an Acceptance criteria.

If fabric rolls containing more than 40 points per 100 yards square are considered “second”.

Example:
A fabric roll 130 yard long and 45 inch wide contains the following defects:-

6 defects up to 3 inch- ...................................6 X 1 = 6 points
5 defects over 3 inch but less 6 inch- ............. 5 X 2 = 10 points
2 defects over 6 inch but less 9 inch- ..............3 X 2 = 6 points
1 defects over 9 inch- ....................................1 X 4 = 4 points
1 hole over 1 inch dimensions- .......................1 X 4 = 4 points
………………………………………………………………………………………
Total defect points................................................= 30 points

Therefore,

Points per 100 yard square =

              Total points scored in roll  X  36 inch
……………………………………………………………… X 100
    Fabric width/inches  X  Total length yard inspected

        30 X 36
= ……………………… X 100
       130 X 45

= 18.4    (Defect points per 100 yard square.)

So, the roll is Accepted.

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