Indirect System of Yarn Numbering and Calculation
S.M. Bappy Rana
Dept. of Textile Engineering
Bangladesh University of Business & Technology
Cell: +8801781630519
Dept. of Textile Engineering
Bangladesh University of Business & Technology
Cell: +8801781630519
Indirect or Fixed System of Count:
In this system the count of yarn expresses the number of length units in one weight unit. Higher the count finer is the yarn. This system is generally used for cotton, worsted, woolen, linen (wet spun), etc
The indirect system covers the majority of the important types of yarns. The count is based on the number of length units in one weight unit. Thus if 20 length units weigh one weight unit, its\count is 20’s : if 80 length units weigh one weight unit, its count is 80’s and so on. It may be noted that finer or less bulky the yarn, higher is its count number or in other words, the size or bulkiness of the yarn is inversely proportional to the count number and that is why the system is known as indirect system.
The disadvantages of this system are that the count number does not express directly the size of the yarn. As explained above a coarse or bulky yarn will have a smaller count number than a finer or less bulky yarn. Secondly when calculating counts of folded yarns, it is more difficult to calculate the resultant count, especially when the component threads are different counts. The advantage of this system is the comparative ease with which the weight of fabrics can be calculated. The twist of yarn, setting of cloth, etc. , can be more easily calculated as they are directly proportional to the square root of the counts of the yarn.
The indirect system covers the majority of the important types of yarns. The count is based on the number of length units in one weight unit. Thus if 20 length units weigh one weight unit, its\count is 20’s : if 80 length units weigh one weight unit, its count is 80’s and so on. It may be noted that finer or less bulky the yarn, higher is its count number or in other words, the size or bulkiness of the yarn is inversely proportional to the count number and that is why the system is known as indirect system.
The table shows the different length and weight units used in important indirect systems.
Table
Name of System

Unit of Weight

Unit of Length

English Cotton

1 lb

Hank of 840 yards

French Cotton

1 kg

Hank of 1000 meters.

Bump Cotton

1 oz

1 yard.

Decimal (for all yarns)

1 lb

Hank of 1000 yards.

Metric

1 kg

Hank of 1000 meters.

Spun Silk

1 lb

Hank of 840 yards.

Spun rayon staple fibres

1 lb

Hank of 840 yards.

Worsted

1 lb

Hank of 560 yards.

Linen ( Wet spun)

1 lb

Lea of 300 yards.

Hemp (fine)

1 lb

Lea of 300 yards.

Woolen Yorkshire Skein

6 lbs

Skein of 1536 yards.

Woolen American Cut

1 lb

Cut of 300 yards

Woolen American Run

1 oz

Run of 100 yards

Woolen Dewsbury

1 oz

1 yard

Woolen Hawick

26 ozs

Cut of 300 yards

Woolen Galashiels

24 ozs

Cut of 300 yards

Woolen Alloa

24 lbs

Spyndle of 11520 yards

WoolenWest of England

1 lb

Snap of 320 yards

Asbestos British

1 lb

Hank of 50 yards

Asbestos  American

1 lb

Cut of 100 yards

Fiber Glass

1 lb

100 yards

Calculations:
In The indirect system, we have the following:
Count = Number of length units per weight unit
Or,
Length in appropriate length unit
Count= ………………………………………………… ……..(1)
Weight in corresponding Weight Unit
By cross multiplication, we have the following:
Length in appropriate length unit
Weight = …………………………………………… …….(2)
Count
Length = Count X Weight in appropriate length unit …….(3)
It will be seen from the above that there are factors, vix., Count, length, weight, of which two must be given to find of the third one.
English Cotton System
Count = No. of hanks of 840 yards weighing 1 lb.
Length in Hanks
Count = ………………………… ……………….. (1)
Weight in lbs
Again from the formula,
Length in Hanks
Count = ……………………………,
Weight in lbs
Length in appropriate length unit
Count= ………………………………………………… ……..(1)
Weight in corresponding Weight Unit
By cross multiplication, we have the following:
Length in appropriate length unit
Weight = …………………………………………… …….(2)
Count
Length = Count X Weight in appropriate length unit …….(3)
It will be seen from the above that there are factors, vix., Count, length, weight, of which two must be given to find of the third one.
English Cotton System
Count = No. of hanks of 840 yards weighing 1 lb.
Length in Hanks
Count = ………………………… ……………….. (1)
Weight in lbs
Again from the formula,
Length in Hanks
Count = ……………………………,
Weight in lbs
We have,
Length in yards/840
Count = ………………………………… ……..(4)
Weight in grammes/7000
7000 Length in yards
= …………… X ……………………… ………(5)
840 Weight in grains
1000
= ……………………………………………. …..(6)
Weight in grains of 1 lea of 120 yards
25 Length in yards
= …………… X …………………………… ………..(7)
3 Weight in grains
Length in yards
= 8.33 X …………………………. ……..(8)
Weight in grains
From (5) by cross multiplications, we have,
25 Length in yards
Weight in grains = ………… X …………………… ..…….(9)
3 Count
Length in yards
= 8.33 X ……………………. ……….(10)
Count
3
Or, Length in yds. = ……… X Count X Weight in grains ……..(11)
25
The formula (6) is generally used in spinning mills, where a complete lea of 120 yards is reeled out from a bobbin, and tested for count, as well as for tensile strength.
Example: If 240 yards of cotton yarn weight 40 grains, what is the count of the yarn?
Solution:
Here,
Here,
240
240 yards = …….…… hanks
840
40
40 grain = ………. Lbs
7000
Length in hanks
Therefore, Count = …………………………
Weight in lbs
240 / 840
= ……………………
40 / 7000
= 50’s Cotton
Also directly applying formula (2),
Length in appropriate length unit
= …………………………………………
Count
7000 X 240
Count = ……………………
840 X 40
= 50’s Cotton
Again Applying formula (7),
25 length in yards
= ……… X ……………………
3 weight in grains
25 240
Count = ……… X ………………
3 40
= 50’s Cotton
Example: Find the weight 270 yards of 60’s cotton yarn.
Solution:
Here,
270
270 yds.= …………... hanks
840
Length in Hanks
Applying Formula , Weight in lbs. = ………………………
Count
240 yards = …….…… hanks
840
40
40 grain = ………. Lbs
7000
Length in hanks
Therefore, Count = …………………………
Weight in lbs
240 / 840
= ……………………
40 / 7000
= 50’s Cotton
Also directly applying formula (2),
Length in appropriate length unit
= …………………………………………
Count
7000 X 240
Count = ……………………
840 X 40
= 50’s Cotton
Again Applying formula (7),
25 length in yards
= ……… X ……………………
3 weight in grains
25 240
Count = ……… X ………………
3 40
= 50’s Cotton
Example: Find the weight 270 yards of 60’s cotton yarn.
Solution:
Here,
270
270 yds.= …………... hanks
840
Length in Hanks
Applying Formula , Weight in lbs. = ………………………
Count
We have,
Length in hanks
Weight in lbs. = ………………………
Count
270/840
= …………… lbs.
60
270 X 7000
= …………………… grains
840 X 80
= 37.5 grains
Also directly applying,
25 length in yards
Weight in grains = ………… X ……………………
3 count
25 270
= ………… X …………
3 60
= 37.5 grains (ANS)
Length in hanks
Weight in lbs. = ………………………
Count
270/840
= …………… lbs.
60
270 X 7000
= …………………… grains
840 X 80
= 37.5 grains
Also directly applying,
25 length in yards
Weight in grains = ………… X ……………………
3 count
25 270
= ………… X …………
3 60
= 37.5 grains (ANS)
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