# Textile Calculation

## Different Yarn Count Systems, Conversion, Definitions and Formulas of Textiles

Different Yarn Count Systems, Conversion, Definitions and Formulas of Textiles
Bhavdip K. Paldiya
Dept. of Textile Technology
Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology, Surat, India
Cell: +91 9662020909
Email: bhavdipk9009@gmail.com

Definition of Yarn Count:-
To express the different thickness of yarns it is convenient to use a number in the Textile Industry which is known as “Count” of yarn or thread. It may be a single or folded yarns.

According to Textile Institute -
“Count a number indicating the mass per unit length or the length per unit mass of yarn”.

The various systems of numbering yarns may be broadly divided into two systems:-

1. Indirect system or Fixed weight system
2. Direct system or Fixed Length System
1. Indirect system or Fixed weight system:

• In this system the count of yarn expresses the number of length units in one weight unit.
• Higher the count finer is the yarn.
• It is based on the fixed weight system.
• This is the traditional system of yarn linear density measurement.
• The system is generally used for Metric, cotton, worsted, woollen(American Cut, American Run, Hawick, Dewsbury, Yorkshire skein), Spun rayon(staple fibre), French cotton, Bump cotton, Asbestos(British & American). Fibre Glass, etc…..
 Name of System Defination English Cotton Count No. of 840yards hank per pound(lbs.) French Cotton Count No. of 1000 meters hanks per 500gm. Metric Count No. of 1000 meters hanks per 1kg(1000gm.) Spun Silk Count No. of 840 yards hank per pound(lbs.) Silk Count (Ounce) No. of 1000 yards hank per ounce(oz.) Spun Rayon Staple Fibre Count No. of 840 yards hank per pound(lbs.) Worsted & Mohair Count No. of 560 yards hank per pound(lbs.) Woolen Count-American Cut No. of 300 yards hank or cut per pound(lbs.) Woolen Count-American Run No. of 100 yards hank per Ounce(oz.) Woolen Count-Yorkshire Skeins No. of 256 yards hank(skeins) per pound(lbs.), or No. of yards per Dram Fibreglass Count No. of 100 yards hank (Cut) per pound(lbs.) Asbestos Count-British No. of 50 yards hank per pound(lbs.) Asbestos Count-American No. of 100 yards hank per pound(lbs.)

2. Direct System Or Fixed Length System:

• In this system the count of yarn expresses the number of weight units in one length unit.
• Higher the count coarser is the yarn.
• It is fixed length system.
• The system is used for Denier count, hemp & jute counts, Grex count. Tex count, Etc…
 Name of System Defination Tex Count Weight in gms. Per 1000 mtr. Grex Count Weight in gms. Per 10000mtr. Denier Count Weight in gms. Per 9000 mtr. Jute Count Weight in lbs. of 14400 yds. Spindle Hemp Count Weight in lbs. of 14400 yds. Spindle Flax Count Weight in lbs. of 14400 yds. Spindle Linen Count Weight in lbs. of 14400 yds. Spindle Silk Count (Dram System) Weight in Drams of 1000 yards hank.
Definitions & Formulas:

1. English Cotton system (Ne)
The count of a cotton yarn is the number of hanks, each of 840 yards in 1 lb. ( 1 lb. weight is considered as a fixed weight).

Length of yarn in Yards
English Cotton count (Ne) = -----------------------------------------
Weight of yarn in lb. X 840

2. French cotton count (Nf)
The French cotton count is the no. of hanks of 1000 meters which weight of 500 gms.

Length of yarn in Meters
French Cotton count (Nf) = ------------------------------------------------
Weight of yarn in 1 km X 2000

3. Metric count System (Nm)
The metric count of yarn is the no. of hanks, each of 1 km. which 1 kg.

Length of yarn in Mtr
Metric Count (Nm) = ------------------------------------------------
Weight of yarn in kg. X 1000

4. Spun silk count system
The count of spun silk system in the total no. of hanks, each of 840 yds weighing one pound.

This system is used for the yarn made from pure silk waste.

Length of yarn in Yards
Spun Silk Count = --------------------------------------------
Weight of yarn in lb. X 840

5. Worsted & Mohair Count system
The count of yarn in worsted & mohair counts system the no. of hanks, each of 560 yards weighing one pound.

Length of yarn in Yards
Worsted & Mohair Count = -------------------------------------------
Weight of yarn in lb. X 560

6. Woolen count system

i. Woolen count- Yorkshire Skeins System
The weight unit of 6 lbs. is fixed and length unit as a skein of 1536 yards is fixed.

Length of yarn in Yards
Yorkshire Skeins System = ------------------------------------------------
Weight of yarn in lb. X 256

ii. Woolen count- American Cut System
The count of woolen yarn in American Cyt system is the no. of Cuts each of 300 yards weighing one pound.

Length of yarn in Yards
American Cut System = ---------------------------------------------
Weight of yarn in lb. X 300

7. Asbestos count-American System
The count of yarn in asbestos American system of hanks each of 100 yards weighing one pound.

Length of yarn in Yards
Asbestos American System = -------------------------------------------------
Weight of yarn in lb. X 100

8. Fiberglass System
The count of yarn in fiberglass system is the no. of cuts or hanks each of 100 yards weight in one pound.

Length of yarn in Yards
Fiberglass System = -------------------------------------------
Weight of yarn in lb. X 100

9. Tex count system (gK)
The Tex count of the yarn is the no. of gms. In 1000 mts.

It is a Direct System of Yarn numbering.

Weight of yarn in gms.
Tex count system (gK) = -------------------------------------------
Length of yarn in 1000 mts

10. Grex count system
In the grex count system the no. of gms that 10000 mts. Weight indicates the count.

Weight of yarn in gms. X 10000
Grex System = ---------------------------------------------------
Length of yarn in mts

11. Denier cout system (Td)
The denier count is weight in gms of 9000 mts of yarn.

Weight of yarn in gms.
Denier count (Td) = ---------------------------------------------
Length of yarn in 9000 mts

12. Jute/Hemp/Flex and Linen System (Dry Spun)
In these systems the length unit is a spindle of 14400 yards and weight unit is one pound.

Weight of yarn in pounds X 14400
Jute count System = ------------------------------------------------------
Length of yarn in yards

13. Silk Count (Dram System)
In silk count system the wt. unit as one dram and the length unit as 1000 yards.

Weight of yarn in Drams X 1000
Silk Count (Dram System) = ----------------------------------------------

Length of yarn in yards

Basic Conversation of Counts:
Linear system measurement:
 1 Inch =25.4 mm 1 feet = 12 Inch 1 Inch = 2.54 cm 1 Inch = 0.0833 feet 1 mm =0.03937 Inch 1 feet = 0.3048 meter 1 cm = 10 mm 1 yard =36 Inch 10 cm =3.94 Inch = 1 Decimeter 1 meter=39.37 Inch 1 cm = 0.3937 cm 1 meter =1.0936 yard 1 yard =0.9144 meter 1 yard =3 feet 1000 meter = 1 km 1 km = 0.6214 mile
Weighs:
 1 kg. = 1000 gm 1 milligram = 0.015 grains 1 gm. = 1000 milligram 1 centigram = 10 mg. 1 kg. = 2.205 pounds(lbs.) 1 lbs. = 453.6gms. 1 lbs. = 0.4536 kg 1 lbs. = 7000 grains. 1 lbs. =1.602 gm 1 ounce(oz) = 28.35 gms. 1 grains =0.065 gms. 1 dram = 1.772 gms 1 metric ton = 1000 kgs 1 metric ton = 0.984 ton
Temperature:
 1° F = -17.22° C 1° C = 274.15° K 1° F = 255.928° K 1° K = -457.87 °F 1° C = 33.8° F 1° K = -272.15° C
References:-

1. Useful Tips in Spinning By S. K. Shrivastava.
2. Aritho-Spinweave Book of Calculations of Spinning & Weaving -By T. C. Shah, P. M. Valand, V. H. Vadalikar.
3. Principle of Textile Testing By J. E. Booth.